Basic Structure of Hindi Poetry
Part 2a - Software "Geet Gatiroop" to help in Maatraa Counting


Vinod Tewary and Vani Murarka
(Editors, Kaavyaalaya.org)
Email address: kaavyaalaya@gmail.com



Preface
Part 2 of the article series on the Basic Structure of Hindi poetry dealt with an introduction of Maatraa (मात्रा) in metered (छन्दोबद्ध) poems. Subsequent to the publication of that article, a software is now available, which can assist you in maatraa counting. This addendum to Part 2, illustrates the same examples of Part 2, this time using the software. This hopefully will enable a further understanding of those examples as well as serve as an introduction for how to the software can help you in applying the principles laid down in Part 2.

The whole article is in 4 parts as listed below:

Part 1: Structural units of a poem.
Part 2: Maatraa (मात्रा) or Meter of a Poem for Chhanddobaddh (छन्दोबद्ध) Poetry - i.e. poems that follow a clear rhyme and rhythm. This is perhaps the most important ingredients of the craft of poetry.
Part 2a: (This part) Software “Geet Gatiroop” (गीत-गतिरूप) to help in Maatraa Counting
Part 3: Rhythm in Mukt-Kavita (free verse) based on Maatraa and other structures.
Part 3a: Geet Gatiroop software for Mukt-Kavita
Part 4: Correspondence with Urdu poetry


1. Introduction
The software Geet-Gatiroop ( गीत-गतिरूप ) provides a visual output of the maatraa arrangement of a given set of lines of poetry, in the same way as the examples in Part 2 were illustrated with diagrams. Thus, for example, the lines

उमा कहउं मैं अनुभव अपना
सत हरि भजन जगत सब सपना

उमा
(1+2)
कहउं
(1+1+1)
मैं
(2)
अनुभव
(1+1+1+1)
अपना
(1+1+2)

= total 16
सत
(1+1)
हरि
(1+1)
भजन
(1+1+1)
जगत
(1+1+1)
सब
(1+1)
सपना
(1+1+2)

= total 16


Example from Part 2

is displayed by the software as


The colors and shapes have specific meaning that provide additional information to the user. For details see this link. However, for the purposes of maatraa counting and this article, that is not needed.

This software encodes the principles laid out in Part 2 that are largely applicable to any Hindi text – i.e. the fact that laghu swar (short vowels) occupy 1 maatraa, deergh swar (long vowels) occupy 2 maatraas, and the generally applicable rules of when when half-letters consume a maatraa and when it does not. However, the software cannot take care of exception cases, and other finer adjustments that may be required for the specific text in question. That is something that only you can do. Thus, it is still important to equip oneself with the knowledge in the other parts of this article series, and use the software only as an assistant, a helper.

We shall now see how the same examples taken in Part 2, are handled by the software and what is required of you as a user.


2. Examples of Part 2, Re-seen via Geet Gatiroop
The software is available at this address: http://manaskriti.com/vis/hindi-poem-vis/ .

It does not need to be downloaded and installed. It is to be used at this address in the browser itself.

This is the software screen –


To obtain the outputs as above, copy-paste (or type) your Hindi text in the box on the left and press the “Visualize” button.


2 and 2 alignment
It is important to note that 1+2 cannot match with 2+1. However 2 can match with 1+1 so 1+2 or 2+1 can both match 1+1+1. For example " राह " (2+1) will not match with " रहा " (1+2) but both will match with " सड़क ".

Output from Geet-Gatiroop




Chaupaayee by Tulsidas उमा कहउं मैं अनुभव अपना

उमा
(1+2)
कहउं
(1+1+1)
मैं
(2)
अनुभव
(1+1+1+1)
अपना
(1+1+2)

= total 16
सत
(1+1)
हरि
(1+1)
भजन
(1+1+1)
जगत
(1+1+1)
सब
(1+1)
सपना
(1+1+2)

= total 16



First output from Geet-Gatiroop:


The software has assigned one maatraa to the nasal sound (ं) at the end of कहउं. To correct that, click in that relevant box, so that it may contract to consume no maatraa.

Final output from Geet-Gatiroop:



Short pronunciation of Deergh Swar (long vowel): Dohaa from Raamcharitmaanas

Dohaas are 24 maatraa. Consider an example of a doha in Raamcharitmaanas:
बोले
(2+2)
बिहंसि
(1+1+1)
महेश
(1+2+1)
तब,
(1+1)
ज्ञानी
(2+2)
मूढ़
(2+1)

(1)
कोय
(2+1)

= 24
जो
(2)
जस
(1+1)
जब
(1+1)
हरिहर
(1+1+1+1)
चहंहि,
(1+1+1)
सो
(2)
तस
(1+1)
तेहि
(1+1)
क्षण
(1+1)
होय
(2+1)

= 24



Note that the maatraa of ले in ‘बोले’ in the first line is 2 whereas the maatraa of ते in तेहि is 1. This is apparent from their pronunciation. The letter ‘le’ in ‘bole’ is pronounced elongated whereas ‘te’ in ‘tehi’ is pronounced in short.

First output from software:


Nasal sound in बिहंसि and चहंहि needs to be adjusted, “ते” in तेहि क्षण needs to be adjusted by clicking on the appropriate boxes.

Final output from software:



Maatraa Manipulation by adding ‘Lahraa’

Now let us take one more example, in which the rule of maatraa alignment is compromised, rather manipulated, by adding ‘lahraa’ or by elongating a letter or by giving a pause:

कामिहि
(2+1+1)
नारि
(2+1)
पियारि
(1+2+1)
जिमि,
(1+1)
लोभिहि
(2+1+1)
प्रिय
(1+1)
जिमि
(1+1)
दाम
(2+1)

= 24
तिमि
(1+1)
रघुनाथ
(1+1+2+1)
निरंतर –अ -
(1+1+1+1+1+1)
प्रिय
(1+1)
लागहु
(2+1+1)
मोहि
(1+1)
राम
(2+1)

= 24


The extra letter अ at the end of nirantar is a kind of lahra that elongates the last letter ‘र’. You can also pronounce it as ‘निरन्तरः’ or ‘निरन्तरा’ to get the same effect.

First output from the software:


Final output, after adjusting nasal sound of निरंतर –


You might wonder: Why does the software assign a maatraa to the nasal sound (ं), that you the user must remove always? The thing is that the (ं) can also indicate a half-letter that does indeed consume one maatraa, such as in the word जंगल which indeed is a 4 maatraa word. The (ं) in this case indicates the half letter ङ which consumes 1 maatraa.



Sthaayee from Jhansi Kee Rani

बुंदेले
(1+1+2+2)
हरबोलों
(1+1+2+2)
के
(2)
मुँह
(1+1)
हमने
(1+1+2)
सुनी
(1+2)
कहानी
(1+2+2)
थी,
(2)

= 30
खूब
(2+1)
लड़ी
(1+2)
मर्दानी
(1+1+2+2)
वह
(1+1)
तो
(2)
झाँसी
(2+2)
वाली
(2+2)
रानी
(2+2)
थी
(2)

= 30



Output from Geet-Gatiroop:



Antara from Jhansi Kee Rani

जाओ
(2+2)
रानी
(2+2)
याद
(2+1)
रखेंगे
(1+2+2)
हम
(1+1)
कृतज्ञ
(1+1+1+1)
भारतवासी,
(2+1+1+2+2)

= 30
यह
(1+1)
तेरा
(2+2)
बलिदान
(1+1+2+1)
जगावेगा
(1+2+2+2)
स्वतंत्रता
(1+1+1+1+2)
अविनाशी,
(1+1+12+2)

= 30


Again note how the total maatraas =30 and the series of maatraas match. In counting the maatraas, note that kri (कृ) in the first line is one maatraa and gya (ज्ञ) is counted as 1+1 because of their pronunciations in the respective words. If a word starts with ज्ञ, in general it would be one maatraa because it is a composite of half ग and full य with half ग telescoped into य.

First output:

Final output:



Urdu ghazal from Shakeel

बेज़ुबानी
(2+1+2+2)
जुबाँ
(1+2)

(1)
हो
(2)
जाये
(2+2)

= 17
राज़े-उलफ़त
(2+1+1+1+1+1)
अयाँ
(1+2)

(1)
हो
(2)
जाये
(2+2)

= 17

This is matlaa. Notice both the lines rhyme as 'jaaye'. The number of maatraas in each line is 17. The maatraa structure is same- if there is 2 in the top line, the bottom line at that place is either 2 or 1+1. Notice that ए in बेज़ुबानी is counted as 2, whereas in राज़े it is counted as 1 because it has a long pronunciation in bezubaanee and a short pronounciation in raaze. In general in composite possessive nouns in urdu, ए has a short pronunciation and has 1 maatraa (For example - गमे-दिल). Here is another couplet in the same ghazal.

ज़िक्र
(1+1+1)
उनका
(1+1+2)
जुबान
(1+2+1)
पर
(1+1)
आया
(2+2)

= 17
यह
(1+1)
कहीं
(1+2)
दास्ताँ
(2+1+2)

(1)
हो
(2)
जाये
(2+2)

= 17



First output -

Output by adjusting जे in राजे -



Three videos are available, which explain the principles of Part 2 in a more visual manner with the use of the Geet-Gatiroop software. We recommend that you see the videos. They will enable you to further understand the concepts and know how the software can be used.




Part 1: Short Long Vowels / Laghu Deergh Swar (2:32)

Part 2: Flexibility in Urdu (6:56)

Part 3: Half Letters / Aadhaa Akshar (10:27)


Next, Part 3: Rhythm in Mukt-Kavita (free verse) based on Maatraa and other structures.


10th August 2013


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